Trends in Black and White Opioid Mortality in the United States, 1979–2015


Recent research on the US opioid epidemic has focused on the white or total population and has largely been limited to data after 1999. However, understanding racial differences in long-term trends by opioid type may contribute to improving interventions. We analyzed age-standardized opioid mortality rates, by race and opioid type, for the US resident population from 1979 to 2015. The long-term trends in opioid-related mortality for non-Hispanic blacks and non-Hispanic whites went through three successive waves. In the first wave, from 1979 to the mid-1990s, the epidemic affected both populations and was driven by heroin. In the second wave, from the mid-1990s to 2010, the increase in opioid mortality was driven by natural/semi-synthetic opioids (i.e., codeine, morphine, hydrocodone, or oxycodone) among whites, while there was no increase in mortality for blacks. In the current wave, increases in opioid mortality for both populations have been driven by heroin and synthetic opioids (i.e., fentanyl and its analogues).